Tag Archives: countryside

Two pennies to have a dance

The International Association AREIA (Audio-archive of Migrations between Europe and Latin America, based at the Department of Antiquities, Philosophy, History of the University of Genoa) has recently produced the exhibition Overcome Themselves. Migrant voices between Europe and America. The exhibition displays an anthology of thoughts of Europeans and Latin Americans in transit between the two continents, from the beginning of the Twentieth century to today. The sentences collected were chosen within the oral testimonies kept by AREIA and arranged around some keywords: travel, work, live, have fun, study, buy, eat, return.

Among the text chosen by the curator, one is from the oral testimonies I collected during my field research for The choice of the land. Here speaks Alfonso (pseudonym), who tells the last one of the many trips that took him in a few years from Western Paraná (Brazil) to Paraguay and vice versa, always looking for new (precarious) jobs, in particular related to the cutting of timber. We are in the Seventies of the Twentieth century.

“The last time I went to Paraguay, in 1993, I barely had a change of clothes, only a pair of pants to use at parties.
So I worked as a bricklayer: just to eat, just to buy myself a new shirt and save two coins for a dance.
It’s different now. Now I’m still skinny; I weigh 60-61 kilos, but then I weighed 50, and if my head is like that now, then it was like this… for the headache, for the worries, for the debts to be paid… I saved something thanks to my sacrifices”.

The differentiation of the Brazilian peasantry and its struggles for citizenship

Group of peasants debates during a workshop of the "juçara network". Quilombo of Campinho (Rio de Janeiro). 2010. Credits: Luca Fanelli/ ISA/ Rede Juçara
Group of peasants debates during a workshop of the “juçara network”. Quilombo of Campinho (Rio de Janeiro). 2010. Credits: Luca Fanelli/ ISA/ Rede Juçara

Intervento presentato al XXXIV Convegno Internazionale di Americanistica, nella sessione: 19. Centralità dei margini e nuove forme di cittadinanza, coordinata dal Prof. João Pacheco de Oliveira e dal Prof. Roberto Malighetti.

Diversità del “campesinato” brasiliano e delle sue lotte per la cittadinanza

La lotta per la riforma agraria, che, dagli anni Settanta del Novecento, ha coinvolto in Brasile un ampio spettro di forze sociali e politiche, ha promosso una nuova cittadinanza per popolazioni rurali (e urbane) marginalizzate. Nel corso degli anni Novanta si sono progressivamente andate affermando, nell’ambito rurale, nuove bandiere di lotta, la cui base prevalente non era più “di classe”, come è nel caso delle lotte appena menzionate per la riforma agraria. In particolare si sono azionati gruppi che hanno rivendicato la terra: a) in nome di un particolare rapporto con le risorse naturali (con riferimento all’ecologia e allo sviluppo sostenibile) e b) in nome del debito storico che la nazione ha contratto con gli ex-schiavi di origine africana (i remanescentes de quilombos).

Group of peasants debates during a workshop of the "juçara network". Quilombo of Campinho (Rio de Janeiro). 2010. Credits: Luca Fanelli/ ISA/ Rede Juçara
Group of peasants debates during a workshop of the “juçara network”. Quilombo of Campinho (Rio de Janeiro). 2010. Credits: Luca Fanelli/ ISA/ Rede Juçara

The following abstract I submitted was accepted for the session Margins centrality and new forms of citizenship of the XXXIV Convegno Internazionale di Americanistica (Perugia 2012):

 The differentiation of the Brazilian peasantry and its struggles for citizenship

Abstract: The struggle for agrarian reform, from the Seventies of the XX century, involved a wide range of social and political actors and fostered a new citizenship for rural (and urban) marginalized people. During the Nineties, within the rural arena, struggles of a new kind rose; their ground wasn’t any more a concept of “class”, as it is the case for the above mentioned struggles. In particular, the actors claimed the land based on: a) a specific relationship with natural resources (related to ecology and sustainable development) and b) the historical debt the nation contracted with the former afro-descendant slaves (remanescentes de quilombos).

This session will be held in Perugia, Wednesday, March the 9th, 2012.

Group of peasants debates during a workshop of the "juçara network". Quilombo of Campinho (Rio de Janeiro). 2010. Credits: Luca Fanelli/ ISA/ Rede Juçara
Group of peasants debates during a workshop of the “juçara network”. Quilombo of Campinho (Rio de Janeiro). 2010. Credits: Luca Fanelli/ ISA/ Rede Juçara

Ponencia apresentada no XXXIV Congresso Internacional de Americanistica, na sessão 19. Centralidade dos margens e novas formas de cidadania, coordenada pelo Prof. João Pacheco de Oliveira e pelo Prof. Roberto Malighetti.

A diferenciação do campesinato brasileiro e as suas lutas para a cidadania

A luta pela reforma agrária, que, desde a década de Setenta dos Novecentos, envolveu no Brasil um amplo leque de forças sociais e políticas, promoveu uma nova cidadania para os povos marginalizados do campo (e da cidade). No decorrer da década de Noventa foram se afirmando, no campo, novas bandeiras de luta, cuja base não era mais a “classe”, como era no caso das lutas pela reforma agrária das quais falamos. Especificamente, ativaram-se grupos que reivindicavam a terra: a) baseados numa relação peculiar com os recursos naturais (em relação à ecologia e desenvolvimento sustentável) e b) baseados na dívida histórica que a nação tem em relação aos descendentes de escravos de origem africana (é o caso dos remanescentes de quilombo).